Sumerian Cuneiform Terracotta Tablet


2038 BC


2.25″ (5.7cm) high x 1.65″ (4.2cm) wide




Eastern Mediterranean

Gallery Location



Sumerian cuneiform is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. First appearing in the 4th millennium BC in what is now Iraq, it was dubbed cuneiform (‘wedge-shaped’) because of the distinctive wedge form of the letters, created by pressing a reed stylus into wet clay. Early Sumerian writings were essentially pictograms, which became simplified in the early and mid 3rd millennium BC to a series of strokes, along with a commensurate reduction in the number of discrete signs used (from c.1500 to 600). The script system had a very long life, and was used by the Sumerians as well as numerous later groups – notably the Assyrians, Elamites, Akkadians and Hittites – for around three thousand years. Certain signs and phonetic standards live on in modern languages of the Middle and Far East, but the writing system is essentially extinct. It was therefore cause for great excitement when the ‘code’ of ancient cuneiform was cracked by a group of English, French and German Assyriologists and philologists in the mid 19th century AD. This opened up a vital source of information about these ancient groups that could not have been obtained in any other way. Cuneiform was used on monuments dedicated to heroic – and usually royal – individuals, but perhaps it’s most important function was that of record keeping. The palace-based society at Ur and other large urban centres was accompanied by a remarkably complex and multifaceted bureaucracy, which was run by professional administrators and a priestly class, all of whom were answerable to central court control. Most of what we know about the way the culture was run and administered comes from cuneiform tablets, which record the everyday running of the temple and palace complexes in minute detail, as in the present case. The Barakat Gallery has secured the services of Professor Lambert (University of Birmingham), a renowned expert in decipherment and translation of cuneiform, to examine and interpret the information on these tablets. His analysis is presented below: Clay tablet, 54 x 41 mm, with a total of 14 lines of Sumerian cuneiform on obverse and reverse. The tablet has been rolled with the scribe’s cylinder seal to show the inscription, which is unfortunately nowhere complete and legible, although it has obliterated some of the text of the document. This is an administrative document from the period of the Third Dynasty of Ur, dated to the 9th year of Amar-Sin, third king of the dynasty, c. 2038 BC. Translation: 3 gur 86 sila of coarse mixed flours: document of Mr. A…aknush 10 sila of barley, document of Mr. …… 130 sila of flour, document of Mr. Shu-Shakkan 40 sila of barley, document of Mr. …… From Ur-Inanna, loqer class, received [Month] Festival of Mekigal Year: the high priestess of Nanna of Karzida was installed. A sila was a measure of capacity, about .85 of a litre, and a gur was 300 sila. This is a list of persons paying in barley to the state bureaucracy, alluding to the documents which accompanied each item. – (LSO.112)

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