4.37″ (11.1cm) high x 1.93″ (4.9cm) wide
Sumerian cuneiform is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. First appearing in the 4th millennium BC in what is now Iraq, it was dubbed cuneiform (‘wedge-shaped’) because of the distinctive wedge form of the letters, created by pressing a reed stylus into wet clay. Early Sumerian writings were essentially pictograms, which became simplified in the early and mid 3rd millennium BC to a series of strokes, along with a commensurate reduction in the number of discrete signs used (from c.1500 to 600). The script system had a very long life and was used by the Sumerians as well as numerous later groups – notably the Assyrians, Elamites, Akkadians and Hittites – for around three thousand years. Certain signs and phonetic standards live on in modern languages of the Middle and Far East, but the writing system is essentially extinct. It was therefore cause for great excitement when the ‘code’ of ancient cuneiform was cracked by a group of English, French and German Assyriologists and philologists in the mid 19th century AD. This opened up a vital source of information about these ancient groups that could not have been obtained in any other way.
Cuneiform was used on monuments dedicated to heroic – and usually royal – individuals, but perhaps its most important function was that of record keeping. The palace-based society at Ur and other large urban centres was accompanied by a remarkably complex and multifaceted bureaucracy, which was run by professional administrators and a priestly class, all of whom were answerable to central court control. Most of what we know about the way the culture was run and administered comes from cuneiform tablets, which record the everyday running of the temple and palace complexes in minute detail, as in the present case. The Barakat Gallery has secured the services of Professor Lambert (University of Birmingham), a renowned expert in the decipherment and translation of cuneiform, to examine and process the information on these tablets. The following is a transcription of his analysis of this tablet:
‘This tablet is very clearly written in a good scribal hand, and is perfectly preserved. It is an administrative document from the period of the Third Dynasty of Ur, dated to the first year of the last king of the dynasty, Ibbi-Sin, that is c. 2028 B.C. It is a monthly listing of rations of beer and bread issued to messengers in royal employ:
3 sila of beer, 2 sila of bread: Mr Lu-dingirra, king’s messenger when he went from Kimash to the king. 5 sila of beer, 5 sila of bread: Mr Su-Enlilla, king’s messenger. 5 sila of beer, 5 sila of bread: Mr Ur-Shulpa’e, king’s messenger. 3 sila of beer, 2 sila of bread: Mr Halati, king’s messenger when they went to Kimash. 5 sila of beer, 5 sila of bread: Mr Lugal-isha…when he went to the country. 3 sila of beer, 2 sila of bread: Mr Kinamussi, king’s messenger when he went from Susa to the king. 3 sila of beer, 2 sila of bread: Mr Basha, king’s messenger when he went to the city governor. 3 sila of beer, 2 sila of bread: Mr Ur-Shakkan, king’s groom. 2 sila of bread: Mr Shulgi-nakushu, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Izzas-Meshar, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr…-bani, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Girini-isha, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Shu-Eshtar, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Inimmani, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Iddi’-Enlil, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Puzur-Sin, equerry. 2 sila of bread: Mr Shanakum when they went to Gigir-Zikum. 2 sila of beer, 2 sila of bread: Mr Ikum- meshar, dog warden when he went to the dog-… Disbursement for the month Gisigga. Year: Ibbi-Sin, king. Left edge: 28th day.
A sila was about .85 of a litre, a measure of capacity. It is obviously suitable for measuring beer, but it is nowhere explained how bread was so measured. Did they perhaps mean the amount of flour used in the bread? This tablet is important for giving details of the journeys undertaken by these messengers. Previously published tablets of this kind do not give such details.Login to view price