Asante Fertility Akua’ba Doll

SKU DE.035
Circa

20th Century AD

Dimensions

13″ (33.0cm) high

Medium

Wood

Origin

Ghana

Gallery Location

USA


 

This is a charming example of one of Africa’s most recognisable fertility idols, the Asante Akuaba doll. Like most tribes, the Asante hold fertility in extremely high regard; those societies that do not grow are doomed to fail. As a result, women are, from an early age, constantly aware of the importance of conception and successful delivery of live children. Any failure to do so would be construed as a disgrace not only for her, but for her family and tribe. So to negate any ill-fortune, she may visit the tribal medicine man to commission a piece such as this. The name Akua’ba relates to the myth of a woman (named Akua) and the trials involved in her attempts to have a child (ba); her solution was to treat a wooden doll as a child, and eventually she herself became pregnant.

Endowed with magical properties, these dolls are treated as if they were real babies – carried around, dressed, washed, fed and even put to bed. It is likely that they do have a positive effect on the prevalence of successful conception, if only from a psychosomatic point of view. Once born, the child may be encouraged to play with the doll, thus promoting maternal sentiment; while a male child may be wished for, these dolls are almost always female, partly because of the matrilineal nature of Asante society. The Asante are one of six tribes (the others are the Fante, Aowin, Anyi, Akye and Abron) that go to make up the Akan group of the former Gold Coast – now Ghana. Their society, which was founded in the 14th century, has had a very turbulent history and was involved in the 18th century federation that took a golden stool as their emblem and rose up against the European invaders. Their society is highly ritualised, with numerous gods under the main deity known as Onyame (“the Supreme One”), and a host of spirits that include, for our purposes, the earth goddess of fertility – Asase Yaa.

Asante iconography and artistic design is among the most abstract and expressionist in Africa, and was immensely influential in the development of European art styles in the early days of the 20th century. Prestige pieces are uncommon, and are either made from rare materials such as ivory, or are adorned with trade beads or other precious objects. Akuaba dolls are not especially uncommon. However, well-carved examples of what is largely a symbolic amulet are infrequently found. Although they follow standardised stylistic trends, there is some variation. The most extreme versions come from outside the Asante range; Fante variants have elongated rectangular heads, while the Bono people carve smiling Akuabas with ornate hair and rather vacuous expressions. Even within the Asante tribal areas there are stylistic variants – that denote different geographical origins or sculptors – in the way details are carved, and it is probable that further research could identify the exact origin of this particular piece.

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